This work will be of particular interest to those working in the field of electrical engineering and to industrialists, the final users of these technologies. It will also be of interest to electrochemists, as experts in lead or nickel batteries are becoming fewer and farther between, and their knowledge and practical skills are steadily being lost.
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There was a problem with saving your item s for later. You can go to cart and save for later there. Lead-Nickel Electrochemical Batteries - eBook. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. Tell us if something is incorrect. Free delivery. Arrives by Monday, Oct 7. Pickup not available. Return policy. Product Highlights The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century.
Unfortunately they are still not used in optima. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Any specific alloy is easily provided by rolling the desired composition before laminating the layer by roll bonding.
Lead-Nickel Electrochemical Batteries : Christian Glaize :
The starting thickness of the individual strips can be selected to obtain the desired final thickness for each layer as well as the total thickness. For example,- to obtain a preferred grid structure, two pieces of 0. As one skilled in the rolling art would realize, however, these thicknesses can be varied to obtained different final thicknesses. Thus, by selecting different layer thicknesses before rolling, different ratios of layer thicknesses can be easily obtained.
The antimonial lead slabs for use in the continuous lamination process are also initially rolled to a thinner desired thickness before laminating. This thinner gauqe is required for continuous processing so that the antimonial lead strips may be coiled easily. One or two pieces of lead-calcium-tin strip are sandwiched between two pieces of antimonial lead strip and pack rolled to a final desired thickness of the laminate. In this continuous process, two antimonial lead strips are continuously fed to the roll bonder from coils on either side of the center lead-calcium-tin alloy strip to form the laminated sandwich.
The roll b. Such machines are well known in the industry as "Two-Hi" rolling mills.
By following the proper roll bonding procedure, no detectable porosity in the outer layers or delamination defects can be seen at the bonding interface under microscopic examination up to X. The slitting operation is accomplished using a conventional strip slitter machine which is well known in the industry. Battery tests were conducted using four types of grids, namely, 1 cast antimonial lead grid, 2 expanded antimonial lead grid, 3 expanded lead-calcium-tin alloy grid and 4 the laminated grid of the present invention.
The same alloy composition was used for both the cast and expanded antimonial lead grid. The laminated grid was produced by roll bonding of antimonial lead strip and lead- calcium-tin strip. Chemical analysis of the two alloys used in the preparation of the grid tested showed the following compositions:. The cast grid was produced using a conventional grid caster. For expanded grid, the alloys were melted and static cast to slabs of 2 inches x 28 inches x 33 inches. Slabs were then rolled to a finished gauge of 0. For the laminated grid, the antimonial lead was rolled to 0.
Two pieces of lead-calcium-tin strip were then sandwiched between two pieces of antimonial lead strip and pack rolled to 0. The finished rolled strip exhibited a thickness distribution of 0. Tensile strength of this laminated strip was found to be 7. All the 0. Comparative tests of batteries constructed utilizing the four types of grids prepared according to Example 1, above, were made to determine the deep charge- discharge cycle performance characteristics of the batteries.
The cells were constructed using, as far as possible, methods and procedures similar to those employed in commercial battery fabrication. The plate size of each of the batteries was approximately 6 inches x 4 inches. The grids were pasted with a conventional high density formula. Efforts were made to keep the weight of paste per unit area of positive plate constant regardless of grid type. Each test cell consisted of three plates. Commercially available separators of the type used in the manufacture of traction type batteries such as armor-rib with 0.
Grace were used between the plates. The cells were formed conventionally using a sulfuric acid electrolyte with a specific gravity of about 1. After formation, the cells were dumped and refilled with acid having a specific gravity of about 1. Adjustment of the specific gravity of the electrolyte in the individual cells was then made to bring the final value to within the range 1.
Prior to the beginning of the automatic cycling, manual cycles were run on each cell to determine initial cell capacities. Discharges were run at rates of 1. Using the capacity information obtained from the manual cycling test, automatic cycling apparatus was set to provide a 2 hour discharge followed by a 9. The cells were charged for 9. The current was limited to a 2 hour rate at the beginning of the charge phase of the cycle. Following the charge phase there was a one-half hour rest period before commencement of the discharge phase. As the cells progressed toward the end of the discharge phase, the voltage dropped below 1.
When that occurred, and automatic cell cut-off circuit terminated the discharge at 1. Cell failure was defined to have occurred when cell capacity fell below 50 percent of the capacity of the 10th cycle. Base capacity was defined as the 10th cycle value in order to avoid initial transients. Cells were cycled at room temperature, separated from each other, to minimize heating effects. Results of the tests showing the deep charge-,, discharge cycle life for all types of grids are shown in Table I. The data shown is the average of 3 cells. The results indicate that the cycle life of laminated grid is significantly better than that of lead-calcium-tin alloy grid, and better than that of both the cast and expanded antimonial lead grids.
Table I: Cell Cycle Life. Various thickness of antimonial lead alloy, strips were sandwiched around different thicknesses of lead- calcium-tin alloy strips. These multi-layer strips were then rolled as described in the specification to a desired final dimension.
The various thickness of the initial and final strips are illustrated below in Table II. Example layer 3 4 5 6 outer layer top 0. Laminate Thickness in. The invention encompasses all other examples which one skilled in the art may conceive within the scope of the claims as set forth hereinafter. Kind code of ref document : A1. Designated state s : JP. Ref document number : Country of ref document : EP.
A laminated lead alloy strip suitable for deep charge-discharge as well as conventional lead-acid battery grid application. A thin layer of an antimonial lead alloy is laminated on such side of a lead-calcium-tin alloy strip by rollbonding. The inner layer provides good mechanical strength, while the outer layers provide the electrochemical properties needed for long cycle life in deep charge-discharge batteries.
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Also, methods of making the strip and use of this strip as an expanded grid material in electrochemical cells or batteries. This also enables the strip to provide the improved I properties when utilized as an expanded grid in an electrochemical cells. A wrought composite strip comprising an inner layer of a lead-calcium-tin alloy laminated on each side with a outer layer of an antimonial lead -alloy.
The composite strip of claim 1 wherein said lead-calcium-tin alloy comprises about 0. The composite strip of one claims 1 or 2 wherein the thickness of each outer layer ranges from about 0. The composite strip of one of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4 wherein the inner and outer layers are roll bonded by pack rolling. An expanded battery grid material comprising the composite strip of one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, said strip subjected to an expanding operation to achieve the desired size and configuration. An electrochemical cell comprising: a sealed container; a plurality of positive plates comprising th expanded battery grid material of claim 6; a plurality of negative plates; means to separate said positive and negative plates; and an electrolyte.
The electrochemical cell of one of claims 7 or 8 wherein the electrolyte comprises sulfuric acid.
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The electrochemical cell of one of claims 7, 8 or 9 wherein the negative plates comprise the same expanded battery grid material as the positive plates. USA true Laminated lead alloy strip for battery grid application and electrochemical cells utilizing same. EPA1 en. JPSA en. WOA1 en. Method of making clad materials using lead alloys and composite strips made by such method.
Method of producing lattice body for lead storage battery, and lead storage battery. Expanded metal grids used as lead accumulator plates - where stiff metal or plastic substrate is clad with lead-antimony alloy. USB1 en. USB2 en. EPA4 en. USA en. Amorphous metal alloy compositions for reversible hydrogen storage and electrodes made therefrom. EPB1 en. Thin film for anode of lithium secondary battery and manufacturing method thereof. CNB en.