Hunt the Devil : A Demonology of US War Culture

Goal: The 23rd International Conference on "Horizons in Hydrogen Bond Research" (HBOND) will be held from September 24 till September 27 in.

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We have explored a variety of geometric configurations, as well as fluid constitutive behavior. We show that in general, it is possible to suppress interfacial instabilities in both Newtonian and polymeric liquids by lining the rigid wall with a deformable solid layer. We show that there is a window of parameters shear modulus, layer thickness, ratio of solid to fluid viscosity where the solid layer suppresses the interfacial instabilities at all wavenumbers without triggering new instabilities.

We also show that solid layer deformability can further be used to promote interfacial instabilities in core—annular flows.


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This could be potentially used in microfluidic applications which are used to prepare monodisperse droplets and emulsions. Limbless locomotion of soft-bodied objects has been achieved by variety of mechanisms: volume phase transition of hydrogels, periodic alterations of electric and photochemical field, rectification of noise on a substrate having asymmetric friction, and so on.

In this report, we have presented a new method of inducing locomotion of soft elastomeric objects by generating geometric asymmetry in it. The asymmetry is generated by incomplete swelling of the material with an organic solvent. In particular, we have prepared cross-linked elastomeric cylinders which adhere weakly to a substrate. We have swelled these cylinders partially by dispensing a small quantity of solvent leading to their bending along length; the solvent however evaporates from portion of it exposed to the atmosphere.

The bending causes a forward rolling motion which is sustained via continued supply of solvent from one side and its evaporation from the other. The velocity of rolling depends on several geometric and material properties: diameter and elastic modulus of the cylinder, surface tension, density and vapor pressure of the liquid, and its ability to swell the cross-linked network.

The above mechanism enables the cylinder to locomote not only on a horizontal substrate but also up an inclined plane. Closely associated with locomotion is adhesion on a substrate, specifically the ability to adhere to it strongly from one direction but to separate easily from the other, which we have achieved by preparing adhesives embedded with closely spaced fluid-filled microchannels. The microchannels are arranged in pairs with a liquid filling on only one of them which generates spatial anisotropy in respect to surface topography and shear modulus of the adhesive. As a result, when an adherent is lifted off the adhesive, it requires different lift-off load to be exerted for separating it from two different directions.

In this chapter, we study the deformation and physical aging behavior of model soft glassy materials. In the first part of this work, we systematically investigate the effect of the initial time scale of deformation and material viscoelasticity on the energy and strain response of the material under a tensile flow field. We discuss the results in the light of increased importance of either viscous dissipation at high deformation rates or brittleness induced in the material at a longer aging period. We further assess the validity of the process time—aging time—stress deformation field under tensile creep flow field.

We next study the behavior of various types of soft glassy materials under the simultaneous application of tensile and rotational stress fields. We determine the yielding criterion for these materials when more than one stress field is present. Finally, we study the squeeze flow dynamics of a soft glassy material sandwiched between a rough and a smooth plate under application of a deformation field of varying strength.

The effect of aging and rejuvenation is also analyzed under squeeze flow field. The results are compared with a time-independent Herschel—Bulkley model for yield stress fluids. The continuously increasing demand for clean and renewable energy warrants the development of renewable, nonpolluting energy resources. Hydrogen is emerging as a natural choice as a more secure and cleaner energy carrier. Fuel cells can be used to produce clean energy from hydrogen, particularly for portable applications.

Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of fossil fuel sources, but to decrease the dependence on fossil fuels, hydrogen has to be produced from a renewable source.

Nanoscale and Microscale Phenomena

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol a renewable fuel has emerged as a promising alternative in recent years. For conducting this reaction on board a vehicle, a compact reactor system is required. A microchannel reactor is more efficient and attractive for this purpose, because of the high surface to volume ratio, resulting in high heat and mass transfer rates.

The reactions involved in producing CO-free hydrogen from ethanol include steam reforming of ethanol, water—gas shift reaction, and preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide. This chapter discusses the steps involved in the development of a microfuel processor for producing hydrogen from ethanol that include fabrication of the microchannels on the metal substrate, coating of the catalyst and support on the microchannels, assembly of the microchannel reactor, optimization of the catalysts for the three reactions, and, finally, heat integration of the different processes to maximize the efficiency of the fuel processor.

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  4. Nold and B. Wiegand: Adv. Nold: Ph. All Rights Reserved. Log In. Paper Titles. Solid-supported lipid bilayers SLBs are model systems used to study a number of aspects of biological membranes such as the structural organization of lipids in localization of lipid-anchored molecules for cell signaling, and interaction forces in biological membranes to name a few.

    Inhoudsopgave

    One of the most common techniques to obtain SLBs is via the spin-coating technique where a lipid dispersed in volatile organic solvent is spin-coated on a substrate. The dried film though of uniform thickness is riddled with holes whose origins remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the hole formation process, we spin-coated lipid films of four different lipids dispersed in ethanol and chloroform on glass substrates and investigated the role of the nature of lipid, solvent, and film thickness on the characteristic length scale of the holes and the number density of the holes.

    For a fixed solvent and rotation rate, the average size of the hole increased with dry film thickness while the number density decreased with the film thickness.

    Arvind Narayanaswamy Research Group

    However, the measured hole sizes are about an order of magnitude lower than that predicted by the spinodal dewetting theory. The length scale of the holes was greater in the case of ethanol compared to chloroform though the predicted trends are opposite. Our results indicate that despite the discrepancy, the spinodal dewetting process plays a role in the hole formation.

    The thermophysical and transport properties of fluid at nanoscale, adjacent to the solid surface, are quite different from that of macroscopic level. It has been realized that the fluid behavior can be tuned via modification of surfaces, which can unfold the underlying physics or mechanism of many biochemical processes or phenomena that exist in nature.

    In this chapter, we mainly emphasize the characteristic equilibrium properties of complex fluids near surfaces.

    In particular, we investigate different types of surface phase transitions such as layering transition, prewetting transition, and 2D vapor-liquid transition for associating hydrogen-bond-forming fluids using molecular simulations. These phases can be altered or controlled using chemically modified surfaces to tune the structure and the stability of the adsorbed layers. In addition, the wetting behavior of different amphiphilic molecules such as water and ethanol and their mixture on smooth and rough surfaces is examined based on the contact angle of the liquid droplet on the surface.

    Different types of wetting modes such as Cassie-Baxter, Wenzel, and impregnation of a droplet are observed as a function of roughness factor, surface fraction, and composition of the binary mixture. The effect of electric field on the phase transition of water under nanoconfinement is also presented.

    Further, we also discuss the phase transition and transport properties of 2D thin films. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities at fluid-fluid interfaces are being extensively explored for potential technological applications such as soft lithography.

    How Do You See on the Nanoscale?

    Although extensive work has been done in this field experimentally, the state of the art in the theory is the leaky dielectric model which might not be valid in certain practically relevant systems. In the present work, various scenarios where the leaky dielectric model is found lacking are identified and alternate theories have been proposed.

    Experimental validation is also provided to show the practical relevance of these parametric regimes, and a big picture of the interfacial instability under electric fields is obtained. Such instabilities, when present, can often be detrimental to many applications such as coating applications and polymer extrusion processes. In this review, we summarize our research which has explored the possibility of using a soft solid layer coating to manipulate interfacial instabilities.

    We have explored a variety of geometric configurations, as well as fluid constitutive behavior. We show that in general, it is possible to suppress interfacial instabilities in both Newtonian and polymeric liquids by lining the rigid wall with a deformable solid layer. We show that there is a window of parameters shear modulus, layer thickness, ratio of solid to fluid viscosity where the solid layer suppresses the interfacial instabilities at all wavenumbers without triggering new instabilities.

    Cracking-assisted fabrication of nanoscale patterns for micro/nanotechnological applications

    We also show that solid layer deformability can further be used to promote interfacial instabilities in core—annular flows. This could be potentially used in microfluidic applications which are used to prepare monodisperse droplets and emulsions. Limbless locomotion of soft-bodied objects has been achieved by variety of mechanisms: volume phase transition of hydrogels, periodic alterations of electric and photochemical field, rectification of noise on a substrate having asymmetric friction, and so on.

    In this report, we have presented a new method of inducing locomotion of soft elastomeric objects by generating geometric asymmetry in it. The asymmetry is generated by incomplete swelling of the material with an organic solvent. In particular, we have prepared cross-linked elastomeric cylinders which adhere weakly to a substrate. We have swelled these cylinders partially by dispensing a small quantity of solvent leading to their bending along length; the solvent however evaporates from portion of it exposed to the atmosphere. The bending causes a forward rolling motion which is sustained via continued supply of solvent from one side and its evaporation from the other.