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Iraq | The Search for National Identity | Taylor & Francis Group

While the relevant sectarian identities do date back several centuries, sectarian violence has not persisted as a social constant throughout the millennia. In the case of Iraq, key US policy choices made in the wake of the invasion, whether purposefully or unwittingly, have led to a progressive, incessant increase in sectarian tensions culminating in violent geographic consolidation of ethnic mapping.

Within this paradigm, social divisions primarily reflected levels of urbanization, class attainment, political power, tribal membership, or national identity rather than sectarian affiliation. Due to certain policies implemented by the occupying power, this tripartite lens has become a self-fulfilling paradigm. Invasion enthusiasts were quite clear that the Iraq encountered upon arrival would no longer be allowed to exist.

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Sectarian-minded actors stepped into the vacuum while occupation forces passively observed the unraveling of the national fabric. The dissolution of hundreds of thousands of stable jobs further degraded social capital and led individuals to seek financial shelter through employment in sectarian militias. While Iraqi returnees frequently sub-contracted several tasks on these contracts, locals often found that the only job open for them in this process was manual labor.

This last outcome exacerbated tensions between exiles and locals who had never left the country. In the same week, Ambassador Bremer announced the dissolution of the entire Iraqi military, an estimated , men under arms. While certain units, such as the Special Republican Guards, were widely perceived as tribal protectors of the former regime, the vast majority of the military was seen as largely outside of politics.

The security vacuum caused by the final dissolution of this national institution was quickly filled by sectarian militias returning from exile in the summer of Rather than integrating militia members into Iraqi security forces while disarming militia units, advisors usually incorporated into security forces and the police entire units of party militias, leaving such units intact, legitimized, and better armed. At the same time, former Iraqi military officers were largely frozen out of the new institution in a manner consistent with earlier policies. As a result, civilians who did not share either the sectarian makeup or the political perspectives of the respective units quickly came to fear and oppose these new units.

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Reports on ineffective police protection from such threats. Medical Availability. Political Figures and Parties. Are there any reports of such groups pressuring athletes, or young men generally? If so why? Are there any reports of the Asso or Party Team? E - Whether there are reports of the Islamic Dawa Party seeking revenge on members of the former secret forces and other perceived enemies; state protection available to those seen as supporters of the Saddam Hussein regime - April PDF Issue Paper - July Demonstrations in Tehran - Dec.

Are Sunni Muslims in Basra being targeted for harm? IRQ - Feb.

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  6. Please provide country information on the profile and public recognition of the Sunni tribal name of "Al Jabweri" and the Shiite tribal name of "Al Shalabi". Please provide country information of violence between Sunni tribal families and Shiite tribal families.

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    Please provide country information of whether government ministries have a higher proportion of Shiite workers compared to Sunni workers and whether Shiites hold more favourable positions than Sunnis in the government ministries. Please provide country information of the extent if any of discrimination of Sunni workers in government ministries either by Shiite colleagues or by Shiite bosses, managers or directors.

    Are there functioning legal mechanisms set up by government which an aggrieved person can call upon as a legal remedy, if she is experiencing discrimination by way of religion? Please provide current country information on the government's ability or lack thereof to protect Sunni's against physical attacks in Baghdad. What is the level of instability within Dora for Kurdish Shiites? E - Overview of the situation of Christians; violence against Christians in Baghdad and the North; displacement; government protection; situation of the Christian minority in the Kurdistan region - Jan.

    Iraq: The Search for National Identity

    E - Treatment of individuals in mixed marriages; particularly between an adult male Muslim with Iranian citizenship and an adult female Catholic of Mexican citizenship - Aug. Reports of people being forced to leave either area between October December due to their religious affiliation. Levels of religious violence in both districts, during to date.

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    Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict. Please provide information on the prevalence of kidnapping in Iraq and in Baghdad in particular. IRQ - Aug. Please provide information about Shia militias, or any other groups, that are threatening former Ba'ath Party members in the Samawa area.

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    IRQ - Oct. If possible, please provide a brief overview of the situation in Basra for teachers in terms of security have there been attacks on teachers? Are they targeting Iraqi government workers who perform a co-ordinating role in this regard? Do the insurgents target Shia Iraqis? Forces - Oct. Specific Country Issues - Ba'athist. Are there any reports of businesspeople having been harmed due to connections with the Ba'ath Party? Is there any information suggesting that former Ba'athists are still of adverse interest to previously persecuted groups in Iraq?

    What are possibilities for relocation in Iraq? For example, is there any reason why a Shia Muslim from Samawa could not reasonably relocate permanently to Basra? E - Iraq: Media in Kurdistan, including social media; political affiliations of media outlets; treatment of journalists — Feb. Was this page helpful? Yes No. Thank you for your input.

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