When planning the implementation of this strategy each semester, the level coordinators design the course syllabus and the planning outline. In these documents, the coordinators define the topics that will be covered, the evaluation system, the assessment tools, the tasks and the dates for each of the planned activities. The role of level coordinators is crucial for this Flipped Learning format to succeed. They are leading full-time teachers who provide part-time teachers with lesson-planning, CPS activities in the institutional Moodle platform, assessment tools, and other resources needed for the development of the course.
Nerveless, part-time teachers are assigned with two weeks a semester to support the planning process. In this model, the level team follows the suggested lesson plans given by the level coordinator to teach their lessons. It also assures that the strategy is being of benefit to all the students, not only to the ones whose teachers are into innovation. Then, each week, the level coordinator meets with a part-time teacher. Part-time teachers take turns to support the weekly lesson planning. Seaboyer n. The co-planning meeting takes place two weeks before the lesson occur, which is a week before the CPS is available to students.
According to the topics, they decide will be covered in that lesson plan, the coordinator designs the CPS for the students to work on it, a week previously to the face-to-face encounter. Figure 3. Planning stage sample The EFL lessons follow the regular steps of a language lesson plan introduction, presentation, practice, and application , but now the explanations are presented in advanced in the CPS.
In the CPS students are provided with input that anticipates the following lesson. Content is provided in the Moodle Institutional platform in a scaffolded way with questions that promote the development of lower order thinking skills. Coordinators analyze, depending on the needs of their lesson plan, the information and skills they would like their students to prepare. Figure 4 below shows a CPS that aims students to prepare a writing lesson at a pre-intermediate level: Figure 4. The ticket-in adopts the form of an entry ticket: no one would go to a concert without an entry ticket.
Students are encouraged to take it to class as a way to be properly prepared for the class. The ticket-in is the evidence of their lesson preparation and, more than a proof to be shown to the teacher, it is the consolidation of the new concepts acquired. Learners are requested to upload the ticket-in to the platform only twice a term, for the teachers to evaluate it. Students can use the ticket-in to review the key information from the CPS at any time or when needed in class.
Alvarez affirms that Flipped Learning is more than a previewing strategy since learners are not only in charge of discovering the content in advanced, but also, they are fully accountable for the mastery of the new information and for attending the class prepared. Figure 5 shows the ticket-in for a CPS that prepares students for a narrative written composition at a pre-intermediate level: Figure 5.
Ticket-in sample for a writing task As the CPS is not tied to a single language skill, neither it is to a video format. As Sung suggests flipping should not always mean recording videos for all the contents of the classes. That is why some CPS activities might include explanations using pictures or charts, not only videos. Another type of CPS might be having students prepare for a task-based activity. In this case, some input of the class-task is provided in the Moodle platform and the ticket-in might be searching for the needed information to write or to speak in class.
Nunan recommends encouraging learners to become researchers as a step to reach autonomous levels. The main goals of this Flipped Learning strategy are to make the EFL instruction more efficient in terms of time, student-centeredness and communicative skills development. Flipped Learning supporters affirm that it is a student-centered approach since students are more responsible for their own learning Alvarez, ; Bretzmann, ; Bergmann and Sams, As the CPS is a self-access resource where students work in their independent study time, the most essential characteristic is that the content should be scaffolded.
The CPS success is ultimately demonstrated in the face-to-face encounters. It is then when students take advantage of the class time to apply higher order thinking skills. Bergmann, Overmyer and Wilie clarify that the flipped class is not all about the videos or content provided in a virtual environment, but that there should be meaningful interaction through different patterns as individual or group work in class.
Similarly, Kachka affirms that the Flipped Learning strategy itself does not increase student success, it is necessary that the teacher seizes the opportunity to guide and interact with the students. Connecting the CPS content to the face-to-face lessons and creating the need of using the ticket-in in class are keys to achieve the goal of having students work regularly in their independent time. As a strategy for such a purpose, depending on the students' level of proficiency, students might be requested to explain the topics to others. Sung affirms the mere flipping of topics or previewing is not sufficient.
The author recommends a cyclical learning in and outside the classroom throughout the semester. For students to reinforce the content previewed in the CPS, compiled in the ticket-in and applied in class; they are requested to work on the virtual platform supplied by the textbook. There, they can review and have further practice on the grammatical topics and, rehearse their listening, and reading skills. Besides, the general planning of the program includes recycling through the semester.
The Flipped Classroom
In conclusion, students embrace three steps in their EFL learning process. CPS and 3. Homework Ticket-in Students reinforce the new topics in Students explore the the textbook new content in the platfom Institutional Moodle platform 2. F2F encounters Students share the new knowledge and apply it in an interactional environment Figure 6.
Figure 7 describes the steps that the academic team in the Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures has undertaken during its implementation: Validation of the strategy and curation of resources and tickets-in in the Implementation EFL and in the French French Piloting stage program program CPS in all the Implementation levels of the in some weeks EFL program of the Portuguese and Italian programs Figure 7. As it is expectable in new approaches, teachers and students faced an adaptation process as the program itself went through a continuous improvement cycle.
In the beginning, when preparing the implementation in all the EFL levels, the level coordinators had to adjust their planning and teaching practices. All materials and Moodle resources had to be adapted to the Flipped Learning approach. Another major concern was related to a historical problem in education. Kachka affirms that as long as there has been homework, some students simply show up for class unprepared. She suggests that instructors can adjust class activities for unprepared students, if they are in fact unprepared. However, this should not become a habit.
In the model described in this chapter, there is a co-planning stage for the instructors to guarantee that the CPS information is a core part of the face-to-face lesson; so, if students fail to do it, they will feel the need to be better prepared next time. That is the most prevalent challenge. An additional challenge that the academic team faced at the initial stage was that some students worked on the CPS, but in the wrong one. Practicing the content from the current week in the face-to-face classes, while preparing the next class in advance was confusing at first.
Cuesta Medina recommends that teachers should include information and demonstration plans that introduced students in the Blended Learning process and resources in their face-to-face encounters. Consequently, teachers realized that the process required to be socialized in a more explicit way in class. Besides the platform allows the coordinators to hide the activities that are not assigned yet.
Although technology is part of young learners' daily life, they are not into the habits of using it for educational purposes. Morgan carried out a study with undergraduate students, within years age range. The researcher found out that although percent of the participants had their own computer, they did not make use of Web 2.
Using technology for educational purposes require more than computer skills. Students need reflexive, analytic and metacognitive skills for their computer-based study time to succeed. Therefore, in the EFL program, especially in the first weeks, instructors access the Moodle platform at the end of each lesson and assure that students understand which the assigned activities are and how to work on them. Nunan states that a step to autonomy is also raising awareness of the learning process.
Accordingly, the level coordinators share strategies at the beginning of each CPS for the students to be guided during their independent study time.
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Then, the academic team decided that the best way for students to keep a record of the new knowledge was the ticket-in. It was a format that students had to complete on a weekly basis. We used it for a semester until students complained about it in the teacher evaluation surveys. They said it was tedious and predictable — and they were right. From then on, we have had different ways of consolidating the CPS information. Now, students are expected to take notes, answer questions in their notebooks, record voice messages, and take pictures, or other tasks to help them demonstrate that they are processing the content.
We still have a Ticket-in, but it is not always the same format. Therefore, experienced coordinators who have been through the Flipped Learning journey always mentor novice teachers. Part-time teachers are always involved in the Flipped Learning design by co-planning along with the level coordinator.
They have the opportunity to give feedback and to suggest activities and procedures to be implemented in the whole level where they teach.
The academic team, composed of about ten leading teachers, started with the implementation of the strategy; however, nearly 40 part-time teachers needed to be convinced to implement it in their classes. Graziano confesses that, like many other educators, his Flipped Learning experience began with doubt, resistance, and many unanswered questions. There, the instructors were provided with concepts, definitions, models, successful cases, strategies and a broad discussion about the instructional change that the EFL program was about to adopt. Nevertheless, the involving learning curve of the strategy might take a longer time in some cases.
During class observations practices, it was revealed that some teachers did not require their students to use their ticket-in in class. In some classes, it was observed that the teacher asked students about the main topic studied in the CPS and then, the teacher would explain it. It was a traditional lecture, which pushed the teaching practices backward, even further than the student- centered classrooms that the EFL program offered before the Flipped Learning approach.
Prezi: This free online presentation tool lets you create engaging presentations in a rather unique format. Prezi is not a slide-based program but rather a canvas-based tool that frees the presenter from a linear approach to concept explanation. You can upload a wide variety of media including YouTube videos, pictures, graphics and text. You then have the option to record a narration over your content.
It is more time consuming than PowerPoint and in a way more engaging. Remember to use the path feature sparingly or your presentation will more like a roller-coaster ride than a learning journey. Before taking the time to author your own educational materials from scratch, investigate the online resources that are already available in your language if you have to create your own, pair up with another teacher! French educators could link directly to these videos or other materials in this course as raw material for language instruction from home.
There are many considerations when working with OER.
Be sure to assess the content for accuracy and level, always keeping in mind the needs of your students. Do not rely on the permanency nor immutability of the materials you find online. Web pages come and go and their authors often change content regularly, so semester to semester, revisit any resources that you used in the past to make sure that they are still available and that the content has not changed dramatically. If you wish to customize OERs in any way, consult the original author of the material and always pay close attention to any license or remix stipulations provided.
If you see a Creative Commons license on any OER, click on the license to learn more about the ways in which the author intended that the material be used. For an example, see the end of this article. You can start with easier grammar points or you can choose more complex ones, as students will benefit from being able to watch the lesson as much as they need to. Create your flipped lesson First choose your medium. If you opt for the use of video, remember you might not have to create them yourself.
After creating videos, one teacher realized that some of her students were simply using the textbook while other students opted for videos made by another Spanish teacher at another school. Thus, there are many ways to combine resources and save yourself some time. If you do choose to use videos, consider using existing ones.
If your textbook has an online component, review those materials and see what you could leverage. See the section on OER below for more information on where to look for materials. Next, make sure all students have a way to watch the videos. Conduct a technology inventory prior to flipping your classroom and find out whether your students have regular access to a computer with an Internet connection.
Empowering Students in the Process of Social Inquiry Learning through Flipping the Classroom
Distribute the videos accordingly: post them online, copy them on flash drives or burn them to DVDs. Arrange with your school library or computer lab to have a few hours reserved for your students to watch the videos or direct your students to a public library with a computer lab.
Note that although we should not assume that all students have access to a computer with an internet connection, access is less and less of an issue these days. As Benton related, none of her Title 1 students needed to take advantage of the use the extended lab hours she had arranged at her school, or any of the other measures she took to ensure technology access.
Making your own videos: If you decide to make your own videos, try to keep them short under 10 minutes , engaging and to the point. It is probably a good idea to only teach one grammar point per video. Making videos is time consuming and many teachers feel paralyzed by their desire to create perfect instructional videos from the start. As with everything, the first few ones might not be perfect, but they will get better with time.
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If possible, try to avoid the talking head model and use slides with illustrations, examples and add a voice over explanation. See the section titled The Tech Side on how to create tutorials. If you want to be in the video, enlist a colleague and make it a conversation. To save yourself time, team-up with a colleague at your school or in your network who instructs a similar level or language to share ideas or materials. Finally, remember that the videos are not the most important part of the flipping process.
Train your students. Students need to be trained on how to use the videos to effectively learn on their own. Watch the first video together as a class and coach the students to eliminate distractions and to use the pause and rewind button as much as they need. Explain that this model allows them to watch the explanation as many times as they need and gives them additional time to process the information. This is very different from classroom lessons where time is limited and students are expected to start using the newly acquired forms right away. Train your students. Students need to be trained on how to use the videos to effectively learn on their own.
Watch the first video together as a class and coach the students to eliminate distractions and to use the pause and rewind button as much as they need.
Explain that this model allows them to watch the explanation as many times as they need and gives them additional time to process the information. This is very different from classroom lessons where time is limited and students are expected to start using the newly acquired forms right away. Make sure you have a system in place to ensure that students watch and process the videos. There are many ways to do this:. Burton who also uses this approach emphasizes the importance of reserving class time to train students on effective note-taking practices.
You can then randomly collect the notes students take. Assessment: You can use your Learning Management System to create a short assessment that students have to take to demonstrate they processed the content. The first five questions are to ensure that students watched the video and then she incorporates a few application questions.
Re-organize your class time. Start by re-organizing your space. The transition to the flipped model often requires an alteration of the classroom space. They rearranged the desk configuration to better accommodate student-centered learning groups, creating clusters of tables with collaborative spaces and positioned SMART boards along the sides of the room The final and yet most important step is to decide what to do in class. Each class should probably start with a brief series of questions and answers to clarify any misconceptions about the flipped content, then ask for student feedback on the effectiveness of the video.
With regards to the rest of the class, many teachers use the freed up time to do fun activities that used to be left out because they were too time-consuming e. For many teachers, flipping makes sense given the conditions in which they teach language, whether they have mixed levels or large classes. It comes with strong pedagogical underpinnings that teachers must agree with in order to successfully deploy and use the model.
Teachers who place a lot of emphasis on grammar accuracy for example might have difficulty moving grammar lessons out of the classroom. Bergmann and Sams would probably agree with this assessment but the flipped movement did help formalize the concept and offer strong companion practices that help ensure that the model works effectively. Kari M. Petersburg, Florida. The website offers free archives of webinars free registration , access to a large network of educators 13, organized by academic discipline, information about their annual conference and soon, an annotated bibliography of the flipped model.
Noora Hamdan, Patrick E. Flipped Learning Network This is a short but concise read. Every page is worth it. We especially recommend the section on mastery learning and how the flipped model gave a new life to this approach. Bretzmann, Jason. Flipping 2. Educase Learning Initiative. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Educate yourself on the model Read Flip Your Classroom, join the flipped classroom network, find a local teacher who is flipping and buy her coffee in exchange for some tips, ask if you can observe a class.
The Flipped Classroom - The FLTMAG
If there are no local resources you can tap into, consider becoming the local resource yourself. Benton for example was not able to find local resources on how to flip so she created her own Professional Learning Community to learn about the model and try it for herself with the help and support of interested colleagues. Dill publishes a parental survey in her Wiki, Witten created a video for parents.
Although the model is increasingly popular, it is still new to many. Make sure to explain what a flipped classroom is, state the benefits, point to the Flipped Learning Network website, link to short articles and make yourself available to discuss this model with parents and administrators.