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This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. A Abalakov thread Abalakov thread A type of abseiling point used especially in winter and ice climbing. Also known as V-thread. Ablation zone The area of a glacier where yearly melting meets or exceeds the annual snow fall. Abseil The process by which a climber can descend a fixed rope. Also known as rappel. ACR Alpine cock ring An anchor method similar to a cordelette but that is dynamically equalizing.

It employs a cord and a rappel ring. Climbers usually play until they reach a certain number of falls. Climbing protection is any of a variety of devices employed to reduce risk and protect others while climbing rock and ice. Different forms of climbing draw on varying forms of protection and the systems that are created from its elements. Types of climbing There are a number of ways to "protect" a climb, varying according to the type of climbing: Lead climbing A lead climber places protection temporary or permanent anchors in the rock, snow, or ice establishing a climbing route.

The rope is clipped through carabiners often joined by a short length of webbing into a pair known as a quickdraw which are in turn connected to the protection. The belayer pays out rope during the ascent, and manually arrests the climber's fall by locking the rope, typically with some form of belay device. Aid climbing Aid climbing involves standing on or pulling oneself up via devices attached to fixed or placed protection to make upward p. To complete the traverse, one must begin at either the northern or southern terminus of the Presidential Range and finish at the opposing end.

Options The Presidential Range from north left to south right. Route 2 or at the Dolly Copp Campground at the northern end of the Preside. A sling or runner is an item of climbing equipment consisting of a tied or sewn loop of webbing. These can be wrapped around sections of rock, hitched to other pieces of equipment, or tied directly to a tensioned line using a Prusik style knot. They may be used as anchors, to extend an anchor to reduce rope drag, in anchor equalization, or to climb a rope.

Slings come both sewn to length and assembled from loose webbing knotted as desired. Common sewn lengths include 10 centimetres 3. They are available in widths of 6—20 millimetres 0.

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Webbing for slings, also known as tape, is sold off the reel, cut to length with a hot knife to prevent fraying, and tied as desired with a water knot. Sewn slings have a rated breaking strength of at least. A snow fluke A snow picket Snow protection snow pro is a type of natural or artificial protection used in mountaineering as an anchor.

Two common artificial devices are the snow fluke and snow picket. It is used both for climbing and for securing tents and other camping gear, designed for use in sand and snow. AMC Guides. Retrieved 26 August Eng, Ronald C. Mountaineering: The. Simul climbing, also known as climbing with a running belay,[1] is a climbing method or style where all the climbers climb at the same time while tied into the same rope.

Protection is placed by the first member of the rope team and the last member removes the pieces of gear. In most cases the climbing team maintains multiple pieces of protection between them to prevent a system failure if one of the pieces was to fail. Usually a belay device is not used. However the first climber may be belayed by the second until enough rope is out for the leader to avoid a ground fall. Similarly the leader may use a belay device as the second approaches a belay station to avoid the potential for a large fall. Fall potential The roles of the leader and second in simul climbing are very different than they are in free climbing.

If the leader falls during free climbing, the second follower is pulled up from their belay stat. A selection of spring-loaded camming devices of differing sizes. Climbers often carry a large number of cams on traditional climbs. A spring-loaded camming device also SLCD, cam or friend is a piece of rock climbing or mountaineering protection equipment. It consists of two, three, or four cams mounted on a common axle or two adjacent axles, so that pulling on the axle forces the cams to spread farther apart.

This is then attached to a sling and carabiner at the end of the stem. The SLCD is used by pulling on the "trigger" a small handle so the cams retract together, then inserting it into a crack or pocket in the rock and releasing the trigger to allow the cams to expand. A pull on the rope, such as that generated by a climber falling, will cause a properly placed SLCD to convert the pulling force along the stem of the unit into outwards pressure on the rock, generating massive amounts of friction and preventing the removal of the unit from the rock.

Because of the large forces which are exerted on t. Easton Glacier, Mount Baker, in the North Cascades, Washington A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two semi-rigid pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement. The resulting intensity of the shear stress causes a breakage along the faces. Description Crevasses often have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can then melt and create seracs, arches, and other ice formations.


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Crevasse size often depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 40 metres, as wide as 20 metres, and up to several hundred metres long. A crevasse may be covered, but not necessarily filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years' accumulation and snow drifts. The result is that crevasses. Rappelling Self-rescue, in climbing, or in the broader activity of mountaineering, refers to actions and techniques, taken by either an individual climber or teams, to retreat or advance from situations which would leave them, otherwise unprepared, stranded and, possibly, dead.

Self-rescue is an alternative to calling search and rescue SAR which can save the climber s being charged for SAR services and can avoid putting SAR team members in harm's way. Unfortunately, many aspiring climbers don't take the opportunity to train themselves in real-life conditions overhanging edges, etc.

Self-rescue requires having a practiced rescue plan, good communication, and foresight to avoid "an incident within an incident". Free climbing is a form of rock climbing in which the climber may use climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress.

The climber makes progress by using physical ability to move over the rock via handholds and footholds. Free climbing a multi-pitch route means free-climbing each of its pitches in a single session. At the end of each pitch, climbers are allowed to anchor themselves to belay stations and rest. If they fail climbing a pitch, they are allowed to use the rope to return to the beginning of that pitch and try it again. The term free climbing is used in contrast to aid climbing, in which specific aid climbing equipment is used to assist the climber in ascending the climb or pitch.

The term free climbing originally meant "free from direct aid". The British Mountaineering Council BMC is the national representative body for England and Wales that exists to protect the freedoms and promote the interests of climbers, hill walkers and mountaineers, including ski-mountaineers. The BMC are also recognised by government as the national governing body for competition climbing.

History The organisation was originally formed in , following a proposal from the president of the Alpine Club, Geoffrey Winthrop Young. In , members voted for the first female president of the organisation, Lynn Robinson. Mixed climbing is a combination of ice climbing and rock climbing generally using ice climbing equipment such as crampons and ice tools.


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  6. Dry-tooling is mixed climbing's most specialized skill and has since evolved into a "sport" unto itself. Terrain The terrain that is climbed on is diverse and consists of rock, turf, snow, and ice in varying amounts. Such terrain is typically encountered in the winter season or on high icy mountains. Grading Grading of mixed terrain climbs roughly follows the WI rating system with respect to its physical and technical demands. Comparing these is rough and only gives an idea of the relative difficulty; the reason.

    Digging a snowpit on Taku Glacier, in Alaska to measure snowpack depth and density Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year. Snowpacks are an important water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt. Therefore, snowpacks are both the drinking water source for many communities and a potential source of flooding in case of sudden melting.


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    Snowpacks also contribute mass to glaciers in their accumulation zone. Assessing the formation and stability of snowpacks is important in the study and prediction of avalanches. The Yosemite Decimal System YDS is a three-part system used for rating the difficulty of walks, hikes, and climbs, primarily used by mountaineers in the United States and Canada. It was first devised by members of the Sierra Club in Southern California in the s as a refinement of earlier systems, particularly those developed in Yosemite Valley, and quickly spread throughout North America.

    The class 5 portion of the class scale is primarily a rock climbing classification system, while classes 1—2 are used mainly in hiking and trail running. Class 3 describes easy and moderate climbing i. Climbers, specifically those involved with technical class 5 climbing, often abbreviate "class 3" and "class 4" to "3rd" and "4th" respectively. Originally the system was a single-part classification system.

    A pair of Tricams: on the right, a nylon size 2. A Tricam is a type of climbing protection equipment.

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    They are currently manufactured by C. Design The Tricam is a passive camming device consisting of a carefully shaped aluminium-alloy cam attached to a length of webbing tape. Most sizes are produced as a solid forged unit, but the larger sizes are made from riveted sheet metal. The device is inserted into a crack so that pulling on the tape makes the piece cam outward against the sides of the crack, gripping the rock tighter.

    Camming action is achieved by the position of the pointed fulcrum or pivot of the cam relative to the attachment of the tape. As the webbing is pulled, the downward force is pivoted onto the point, which can bite into soft rock or ice and increases the holding power of the tricam. An ice axe can be held and employed in a number of different ways, depending on the terrain encountered. In its simplest role, the ice axe is used like a walking stick in the uphill hand, the mountaineer holding the head in the center. It can also be buried pick down, the rope tied around the shaft to form a secure anchor on which to bring up a second climber, or buried vertically to form a stomp belay.

    An ice axe is not only used as an aid to climbing, but also as a means of self-arrest in the event of a do. Face climbing is a type of climbing where climbers use features and irregularities in the rock such as finger pockets and edges to ascend a vertical rock face.

    Face climbing is less reliant upon technique than crack climbing, but instead relies more upon body position. Pushing down with your hands you allow your feet to reach the same hold your hands are on. References Kidd, Timothy W. Rock Climbing: Rock Climbing.

    By The Mountaineers Mountaineering Freedom of the Hills 8th Edition

    Bachar, John; Boga, Steven 1. Harvey Manning July 16, in Ballard, Seattle, Washington - November 12, in Bellevue, Washington was a noted author of hiking guides and climbing textbooks, and a tireless hiking advocate. Manning lived on Cougar Mountain, within the city limits of Bellevue, Washington, calling his home the " meter hut".

    His book Walking the Beach to Bellingham is an autobiography and manifesto fleshing out his journal of a hike along the shore of Puget Sound over a two-year span. The first edition was so successful that it created Mountaineers Books, the publishing outlet of The Mountaineers. Manning is also noted for writing the " Hikes" series of hiking guidebooks, along with Ira Spring: 50 Hikes in M.

    A wide range of equipment is used during rock or any other type of climbing that includes equipment commonly used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall. Rope, cord and webbing Rope and climber's shoes Climbing ropes are typically of kernmantle construction, consisting of a core kern of long twisted fibres and an outer sheath mantle of woven coloured fibres.

    Ropes used for climbing can be divided into two classes: dynamic ropes and low elongation ropes sometimes called "static" ropes. Dynamic ropes are designed to absorb the energy of a falling climber, and are usually used as belaying ropes. When a climber falls, the rope stretches, reducing the maximum force experienced by the climber, their belayer, and equipment. Low elongation ropes str. A double bowline or round turn bowline is a type of loop knot.

    Instead of the single turn of the regular bowline, the double bowline uses a round turn. This forms a more secure loop than a standard bowline. Because of this ambiguity some sources differentiate by using one of the alternate names above. And at least one other source uses the name "double bowline" for a mid-line loop knot made by tying a basic bowline with a bight of rope instead of the end. Wrap the loop once more around the working end. Overview "If there is only one 'how to' book to read for the aspirant and expert alike, it is Freedom of the Hills.

    Product Details About the Author. About the Author Founded in , The Mountaineers Club of Washington is one of the oldest and largest mountaineering and outdoor recreation organizations in the United States.

    Mountaineering Freedom of the Hills 8th Edition: 50th Anniversary 1960 - 2010

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